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Rule of Law in Europe

This page presents the UN Human Rights Office's contribution submitted during the targeted stakeholder consultation held by the European Commission in 2021 in the context of the second annual rule of law report.

The submission consists of a compilation of findings and recommendations contained in reports and documents of United Nations Treaty Bodies, Special Procedures and the Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council, presented in a summarized manner. It also refers to statements and reports of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and her Office. The cited material covers the period 2018-2020.

The compilation encompasses all European Union Member States for which relevant material was available for the period mentioned. It includes both positive developments and challenges to the rule of law, as well as recommendations issued by the UN Mechanisms on how these challenges can be addressed and how the rule of law can be further strengthened.

In light of the methodology proposed by the European Commission, the country submissions were divided in four pillars: national justice systems, anti-corruption frameworks, media pluralism and freedom and other institutional issues related to the checks and balances essential to an effective system of democratic governance. However, not all pillars were covered for all countries, depending on the findings and recommendations issued by the UN human rights system.

The aim of this compilation is to bring the UN Human Rights Office's and UN Mechanisms' voices to the debate on the rule of law at the EU level.

Universal Human Rights Index (UHRI)

If you wish to explore observations and recommendations made by the international human rights protection system (Treaty Bodies, Universal Periodic Review, Special Procedures) for a specific country or per theme, you can use the Universal Human Rights Index (UHRI)

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